Monday, May 25, 2020

The Joy of Smoking Cigarettes Essay - 746 Words

The Joy of Smoking Cigarettes The side of smoking that is rarely published will be explored in this paper. The side that only a smoker knows, not the side the governments and health agencies provide the news media with. This information is valuable because it is not very well exposed to the world. This essay will answer the question, â€Å"Why do you smoke cigarettes?†. Smoking can be very fun. Smoking is a good way to kick back during work. Smoking can actually be a reward, and a reward that we can give to ourselves at any time of the day. Smoking a cigarette after accomplishing a goal can be very pleasurable. Whether at home or in the workplace smoking can be used as a reward. After finishing a task or specified amount of work, a†¦show more content†¦As Ernest Dichter said in 1947, â€Å"There is a direct connection between thumb sucking and smoking† (Dichter). Cigarettes also develop a sense of partnership. Many folks have said that having a cigarette is like having a companion, not being alone anymore. Even when you are doing nothing at all, it feels like you are doing something - smoking. In a sick and twisted way, smoking can be used to control one’s weight. Cigarette smoking makes you less hungry, and therefore if you smoke cigarettes you will eat less food. Smoking can also be used as a pretty accurate gauge of time. A cigarette takes about five minutes to smoke, so if you are waiting to meet somebody, you can smoke a cigarette and know just about how long it will be until they are there. While going on long drives, a cigarette is crucial to making the trip more enjoyable. You can break a six hour drive down into six cigarettes, and this seems to make the time go by just that much faster. Smoking can actually spark a relationship between two people, whether an intimate relationship or just a friendship. If one is in need of a cigarette or a lighter, asking someone for either can be a way to start a conversation. Actually sitting down and smoking a cigarette with a person is how you can start off getting to know each other. After a conversation you may exchange telephone numbers and possibly meet up at aShow MoreRelatedEssay Smoking Tobacco Smoking811 Words   |  4 PagesTobacco Smoking among the Students of Puntod National High School: A Basis for Preventative Measure To Deter Student from Smoking ï » ¿CHAPTER 1 The Problem Introduction The use of tobacco is not a recent phenomenon. It has been said that tobacco plants have grown in North and South America since 6,000 B.C.1. It was also believed that tobacco had many healing qualities which made its use widespread2. In the 17th... Premium 14136 Words 57 Pages Smoking Tobacco smoking FromRead MoreSmoking Cigarettes Should Be Legal1219 Words   |  5 Pagessmoke back then, right? So, you should smoke cigarettes too. If doctors do it, so could you. But is that the case in today’s society? This specific advertisement is addressing to the audience that smoking is okay because doctors are promoting that it is good for you, and it will even enhance your life; however, this is not true. Back then, people thought that smoking a cigarette was not harmful. But in actuality, over the years, it has been found that smoking is harmful to one’s self, and potentiallyRead MoreMarijuana Should Not Be Legal Essay1224 Words   |  5 Pageseffect of some diseases and that by legalizing the drug; the use of pot will actually decline. The fact of the matter is that marijuana is a drug that can be placed into a similar category as cocaine or heroine. Like these other drugs, pot (marijuana) smoking carries with it serious side effects that can effe ct the user forever, and sometimes-even cause death. Marijuana was first cultivated in America during the colonial time period and was used as a fiber for rope and even clothing. The plant was notRead MoreUsing Deconstructive Criticism to Analyze an Advertisement for Newport Cigarettes954 Words   |  4 Pagesmanipulate the audience into believing their product is the best out there. In the advertisement created by Newport cigarettes, the ad is viewed in two different ways: the advertisement is used to intrigue the consumer and the advertisement is viewed in a criticizing way. (Describe what magazine and what issue date is) (More on deconstruct) The advertisers of Newport cigarettes conveyed the product very well by means of layout, choice of color, body language, and wording. In the layout, the advertisersRead MoreOutline For A Word For Word1164 Words   |  5 Pagespersons will die every year of a disease attributable to tobacco use† (Mazzone, 2004). B. (Reason to listen): Hi, I’m Cody Polton, I’ve been around smoking all my life and it really irritates me. I know it is bad for you, but I didn’t realize how bad it was until I began to write this speech. C. (Thesis statement with preview of main points): Smoking not only hurts you, it hurts your friends and family, it can lead to severe diseases, and although it is hard to quit, it is not impossible. Transition:Read MoreThe Benefits Of Quitting Smoking1211 Words   |  5 PagesThere are many benefits of quitting smoking; but today, I want to discuss 10 benefits that hopefully will strengthen your resolve to quit. Even though cigarettes are as addictive as illegal drugs like cocaine and heroin, cigarettes are not only legal, they are sold everywhere from vending machines to supermarkets, which makes them easily accessible for all ages. The majority of smokers start smoking before they turn 16, which means that by the time they are adults, they are hooked, their addictionRead MoreThe Negative Effects of Smoking Cigarettes Essay1525 Words   |  7 PagesSmoking cigarettes can be very harmful to your life with so many health issues, such as heart disease, cancer and emphysema. Some people think it’s not a huge issue smoking cigarettes but it’s a great way to lose ten years of your life. You lose lots of money, a lifetime of health issues, and cause you to have yellowing of the teeth and bad breath .There is way too many health risks involved to start using this drug. Say no to cigarettes you will be healthier in the end then to continue on this wrongfulRead MoreTeenage Addiction to Smoking1498 Words   |  6 Pagesgenerations. The hostile impact on young generations, addiction to smoking cigarettes is staggering. Smoking has taken an enormous toll on the minds and health of young teens around the worl d. Teenage smoking is an epidemic that has derives from several causes. Smoking in young teens has become more common this day in age. Smoking in young teens is most commonly brought about by peer pressure. According to an article Teenage Smoking, â€Å"At no other time in life is peer pressure stronger than duringRead MoreThe Way The Camera Grabs An Image950 Words   |  4 PagesHave you ever had a friend or family member die of lung cancer, or die of a smoking related death? In America over 160,000 men and women die each year from lung cancer. That is less than the amount that have died from breast and colon cancer combined. The leading cause of lung cancer in the United States is smoking tobacco. With this high amount of deaths, a lot of companies are creating ads to get the point out. Companies such as the huffington post create ads that are filled with a message. TheseRead MoreTobacco Is The Primary Source Of Unnecessary Sickness And Death930 Words   |  4 Pagesindividual pro blem however, it also has the ability to affect societal issues. Addictions of any form can impact, an individual’s life, and loved ones. This addiction has the ability to having lasting impacts in a person’s health. Research shows smoking long term use can develop lung cancer, heart disease. Many times the addict has the choice to partake in using the drug, but using the drug extended period of time it begins to alter the mental functions producing the choice of using the drug out

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Decolonizing The Mind By Ngugi Wa ThhiogO Summary

â€Å"Since culture does not just reflect the world in images, but actually, through those images, conditions a child to see that world a certain way, the colonial child was made to see the world and where he stands in it as seen and defined by or reflected in the culture of the language of imposition.† When reading â€Å"Decolonizing the Mind† was published by an African author named, Ngugi wa Thiog’o†. He takes an interesting approach on how he captures his audiences’ attention, he does this by showing the impact of simply changing ones language can have on a community as a whole. Ngugi uses various forms of Ethos, Pathos, as well as Logos; he does an amazing job of organizing the reading from the start to end. Ngugi starts to talk about the†¦show more content†¦These punishments ranged from buttocks being caned, humiliated by carrying metal signs that read â€Å"I AM STUPID or I AM A DONKEY† or some were even fined. â€Å"The culprit was given corporal punishment three to five strokes of the cane on bare buttocks-or was made to carry a metal plate around the neck with inscriptions such as I AM STUPID or I AM A DONKEY.† English became the only way to be successful in Kenya, it didn’t matter how well a student did in all other subjects as long as the student didn’t know English the student would not succeed. Ngugi gives this exact example, â€Å"I remember one boy in my class of 1954 who had distinctions in all subjects except English, which he had failed.† This boy failed English and later became a turn boy for a bus company. Ngugi uses ethos here by showing that English was over all languages, and the Englishmen made sure it was enforced. Over all the children of Kenyas’ life are changed completely Ngugi proves that by changing the childs language and literature they have changes they way the child will view the entire world as a whole, and could take years before he could ever understand his place in the world. Ngugi explains it in a way that can get the reader to imagine a child growing up without any real direction but what he is told. â€Å"The real aim of colonialism was to control the people’s wealth: what they produced, how they produced it, and how it was distributed; to control, in other words, the entire realm of the language

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Who Is Responsible for Duncans Death - 984 Words

We certainly know that the direct responsible for Duncan s death is Macbeth. However this does not necessarily mean he is to blame, for his violent death is obviously the consequence of certain influences that forced Macbeth to perform his fatal deed. Furthermore, to unearth the truth about who is really the guilty for Duncan s murder we must explore the influences the different characters have on Macbeth s impulses and the overall scenario of the slaying. br brFirstly, we shall consider Lady Macbeth and Macbeth as they are the two who planned and performed the murder. Although after the witches told Macbeth that he was to be king and he was burning in desire to be so he, on first instance, decided that if fate had determined that†¦show more content†¦br brFinally, one last culpable for Duncan s death is Duncan himself. His own blind trust in the members of his court even though one of them had all ready betrayed him is what doomed him. Ironically when Duncan refers to the original Thane of Cawdor after he was told of his execution: There s no art / To find the mind s construction in the face: / He was a gentleman on whom I built / An absolute trust, he is unconsciously referring to other Thane of Cawdor as well, this is, Macbeth, as if this was what he would have said after his own murder. The crucial mistake Duncan made was to trust the same person twice, the Thane of Cawdor. This fault was fatal as it proved to be later on. br brIn conclusion we can say that the witches are the main individuals to blame for the regicide as they started the series of events that eventually lead to the death of King Duncan by hand of Macbeth, induced by her wife who was blinded by her thirst for power. In addition Duncan is also responsible for his own decease for he wasn t able to learn from his previous error of trusting the Thane of Cawdor who finds the avengement of his death when Macbeth takes the life of his executioner byShow MoreRelatedEssay on Who Is Responsible For Duncans Death?961 Words   |  4 Pages We certainly know that the direct responsible for Duncan’s death is Macbeth. However this does not necessarily mean he is to blame, for his violent death is obviously the consequence of certain influences that forced Macbeth to perform his fatal deed. Furthermore, to unearth the truth about who is really the guilty for Duncan’s murder we must explore the influences the different characters have on M acbeth’s impulses and the overall scenario of the slaying. Firstly, we shall consider Lady MacbethRead MoreMacbeth Headlines868 Words   |  4 Pagescastle of Macbeth, Thane of Cawdor, the King was stabbed to death in his bed. The body was discovered by Lord Macduff, who had visited his bedside late at night. Macbeth believed that the King’s royal guards were responsible for the murder, and witnesses claim that Macbeth had killed the two guards in a fit of anger before hearing them out. The King’s sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, have fled, raising suspicions of them being the ones who have done the deed. Because of this, a new king is to be appointedRead MoreLady Macbeth Ambition Essay1029 Words   |  5 Pagesprime example on how women influence men. Everyone is influenced by other people, including leaders or authority, to make the wrong decisions at some point in their lives. In the play Macbeth, Lady Macbeth is responsible for the start of the evil doings of Macbeth. Lady Macbeth is responsible for this by using his love for her to persuade him into killing King Duncan. Because Macbeth loved and trusted his wife, he was vulnerable to her opinions and suggestions. Macbeth would never have done any ofRead MoreEssay on Lady Macbeth by William Shakespeare770 Words   |  4 PagesMacbeth. But who or what is responsible for the tragic downfall of Macbeth? I believe Macbeths is partly responsible for the tragic events that take place, including the murder of Kin g Duncan, Banquo, Lady Macduff and her children. However, Macbeth was influenced by the supernatural witches and by the strict pressure of his wife, Lady Macbeth. The themes of Fate, Ambition, Greed and Manhood are expressed in Macbeths action and his tragic downfall. Firstly, Macbeth is partly responsible for the tragedyRead MoreMacbeth1700 Words   |  7 Pagescharacters who are given opportunities to express their loyalty, however it is the different ways in which these characters choose to be loyal or disloyal that shape the play as a whole. It is the character’s loyalty and/or disloyalty that construct the course of the play. The theme of loyalty interrelates the over arching themes of guilt and masculinity throughout the play. Throughout Duncan’s reign he remains a loyal king especially to those who he believes are devoted to him. King Duncan’s firstRead MoreWho Is Most Responsible for Macbeths Downfall?1041 Words   |  5 Pagesoutside force that â€Å"propels† Macbeth. Out of the three characters who lead to Macbeth’s downfall, Lady Macbeth gives the greatest momentum that drives Macbeth into furies of inconceivable acts against human nature. At the beginning of the novel and before the killing rampages, Macbeth is a noble and selfless leader who leads his troops to victory against the invading Irish and Norwegian armies. He gains Scottish King Duncan’s recognition, and goes on to be crowned Thane of Cawdor. OriginallyRead MoreMorality in Macbeth961 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare presents characters that take moral actions and immoral actions. Those who take moral actions are rewarded for them while those who take immoral actions are punished. In the play, Duncan and Macbeth are rewarded for their notable actions. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have strong ambitions that they achieve through immoral actions. Ultimately, after a tragic downfall, justice is served through punishing all responsible for immoral actions. King Duncan was an honest king favored by many. His generosityRead More Macbeth and the Witches Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pages Macbeth: The Witches’ Responsibility for Macbeth’s Actions The three witches that are introduced at the beginning of the play are responsible for the introduction of the ideas that caused Duncan’s death and Macbeth’s destruction but not for Macbeth’s actions themselves. They recount to Macbeth three prophecies; that Macbeth will be: 1) Thane of Cawdor, 2) Thane of Glamis, and 3) King. Macbeth welcomes the ideas spawned from the witches’ prophecies, which is what triggered the spiral of events inRead MoreLady Macbeth By William Shakespeare1075 Words   |  5 PagesLady Macbeth feels no remorse for the deaths they are responsible for but as the play progresses, Lady Macbeth starts to feel remorse for her and her husband’s actions. Although Lady Macbeth and Macbeth hope the night will conceal their sins, instead it illuminates their actions and worsens their guilt. Their actions can never fully hide since they disrupt the natural order of the world and cause chaos. Lady Macbeth and Macbeth call on the night before Duncan’s and Banquo’s murders and hope that itsRead MoreMacbeth Essay on Evil1092 Words   |  5 PagesScotland. But although Macbeth was the one that was directly involved in every murder, there are other influences that have an impact on his pursue for the crown of Scotland and could be responsible for the evil done in the play. When Lady Macbeth first hears about the prophecy of the witches, she immediately plans Duncan’s murder because of her ambition for her husband to become king. The weird sisters, also known as the three witches, initiates the murders because they prompt Macbeth to murder Duncan

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Debut Albums and Hero free essay sample

A hero is portrayed differently in everybody eyes either positively or negatively and they come in all shapes and sizes. From everyday heroism to depiction of what the media feeds society, what is truly considered the meaning of a hero? II. Body paragraph #1 Topic Sentence #1 A hero is defined as a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities. It is also defined as one who is distinct from ordinary people, an idealist person, who successfully overcame the problems and great difficulty.A. Supporting Evidence According to Merriam Dictionary and an academic Journal by Hazily they have defined what a hero is. B. Explanation I believe that is Just one part of the definition to being a hero. There are many more definitions as to what a hero is in todays society. C. So What? While hero is defined by the dictionary one way I believe a hero has evolved Into many different participants In society. We will write a custom essay sample on Debut Albums and Hero or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Sentence #2 Ill. Body paragraph #2 Topic How heroism has changed throughout the years? A.Supporting Evidence According to the academic Journal the concept of hero Is more Inclusive and Includes people from science, technology, politics, administration, arts, literature and sports (Hazily). B. Explanation I do believe a hero can be all of the above but one category Is missing and that Is the everyday person who does not receive any media recognition. C. So What? Although, the concept of hero has changed and It Is not only directed towards men It Is still lacking recognition to those who the media does not look at. IV.Body paragraph #3 Topic Sentence #3 Everyday heroism vs. media B. Explanation C. So What? V. Conclusion Although a hero Is portrayed differently In everybody eyes they are still known for the positive or negative Impact they had In someones life. Debut Albums and Hero By datagram While hero is defined by the dictionary one way I believe a hero has evolved into many different participants in society. According to the academic Journal the concept of hero is more inclusive and includes people from science, technology, politics, administration, arts, literature and sports (Hazily).B. Explanation I do believe a hero can be all of the above but one category is missing and that is the Although, the concept of hero has changed and it is not only directed towards men it is still lacking recognition to those who the media does not look at. V. Body paragraph #3 Topic Sentence #3 Although a hero is portrayed differently in everybody eyes they are still known for the positive or negative impact they had in someones life.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Father And Son Essays - King Lear, Philip Henry Gosse, Edmund

Father And Son Just whom is Edmund Gosses Father and Son written for? Is it for the Father, or for the Son, or, as Edmund Gosse tells us, for the public, so they can have a record of life in a rigidly religious family? Edmund begins his book by telling you that it is a historical record, an important chronicle that is to be used, basically as a reference for a period of time. Yet, in the first sentence of the first chapter, we can see that this is truly not his purpose. The first words on the page does not reference a historical event; they are, instead, cathartic. Edmund tries very hard to convince his reader that this is not an autobiography (217). Try as he might, he did not persuade me. I will grant that for Edmund Gosse to profess to have written this book as if it were a biography of his father, or even as a historical chronicle, was beneficial. First off, by writing something which is to document a period of time Edmund would be writing in the methodical and scientific style of his father, which then would mirror the lifestyle in which he is forced to live. Secondly, Edmund wants the reader to see his father as he did, with honor, awe, resentment and even shame. Edmund does this quietly, he does not shout his shame, he merely reiterates it as a anecdote of a story ...his very absence of imagination aided him in his work. (113) . Page 2 Finally, Edmund, being able to portray this book as a portrait of someone other than himself, is a chance to humble himself, no matter what he says about the father, to the reader. All of these methods that Edmund uses to sway our thinking actually serve only to benefit Edmund Gosse himself. This actually makes it more of an autobiographical account than not. If you count the number of Is in this book, you will find yourself into triple digits (I actually tried this). This is not the only narcissistic angle of the book. Even when reiterating episodes in the life of the Gosses he does it in reference to himself. If this were to chronicle two temperaments, two consciences....two epochs (35) there would be more than one perspective. Do we once hear of Philip Gosses reactions or feelings about his wife dying? We do not, we merely get the reactions of what he does from his son. Do we know what he thought those nights alone without his wife? No, we do not. Edmund did not take the time to find out. He even apologizes when he said, Had I been older and more intelligent, of course, it might have been him, and not of myself that I should have been thinking (80). Yet, still thinking of himself, he states, This is not to be dwelt on here (80). Of course it isnt Edmund, it is an autobiography, it is about you. Edmund, we know would argue that. He tries to take the spotlight off of himself. Being the type of person that he is, the always goes back to talking about himself. In the last numerical Page 3 chapter of the book, Edmund tells of an apocalyptic event, a noteworthy action worthy of ending a book on...his transcendence into heaven. His epiphany is quickly grounded by reality. Nothing happens. His ego is shattered. HIS ego, Edmunds ego. This catalytic event puts an emotional and spiritual division between father and son that puts the thick o the world (235) between them. Although in the Epilogue Edmund is apologetic for having the son (himself) in the foreground of the book, he continues to end the book in exactly the same fashion. Edmund gives you an almost check-off list of his fathers life, extreme solicitude, disappointment and disenchantment....etc. all of this in one paragraph. Edmund then, once again, changes from Hes to Is and tells of his reactions to his fathers incessant postal inquisitions (236) and suddenly the focus back upon himself. That this is an autobiographical book, I have no doubt. For even in the final few pages of the book, Edmund askes the reader if he may speak plainly (248). Funny how he asks permission now for what he has been doing throughout the book. Edmund feels that he surely has a right to protest (248) the final action that he shows us of his father. His fathers letter is

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays

Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays David Stephens and Dack Anderson discussed the theory of short-term benefits as guide to animal feeding decisions. In a series of experiments conducted in an operant laboratory, blue jay birds were the subjects of the study. The foraging animals were tested in two situations namely the self control paradigm and the patch-use problems.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The article details how natural selection among the foraging blue jays favour short term rules which result to long term consequences. The paper discusses how to combine time and amount in a suitable currency that mirrors the fitness consequences of different time/ amount sequences and determines the decision rules foragers apply to select the currency maximizing time/ amount sequence from a determined set of possibilities and investigating the relationship between decision r ules and currencies. Foragers’ farsighted way in choosing is contradicted by laboratory experiments where the blue jays made short sighted decisions. The logic of farsightedness is best illustrated in the traditional studies of Stephens and Krebs (1986) where long term rate maximizing currency is infinite gain/ infinite time however this logic cannot be generally valid because food gained after starvation is not of any use thus the expression is too farsighted. Two groups of scholars presented an alternative to this proposal where the best rate is attained one at a time thus being short sighted (Bateson and Kacelnik, 1996; Baum and Rachlin, 1969) but Stephens and Krebs (1986) argued that when the maximum rate is taken from each chance, time may be exhausted on a mediocre alternative. The authors concluded that both long term and short term models presented are of extremes thus introducing a discount rate which measures the comparative loss of value in order to create intermed iate term models. In this notion the long term model is determined when the discount rate is zero since the value of the gain is the same even if it was obtained early or late in a sequence but as the discount rate becomes larger the approach becomes that of the short term model. The discount rates are expected to be non-zero.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the authors, the long term model is the most sensible because it provides a rational estimate of rate even in a restricted time horizon. It is farsighted enough to pass over bad options and rational discount rates are small. Short sightedness is evident in the notion that animals often make prejudiced decisions which was concluded in the self control experiment. In a self control situation long term rate model predicts that animals will choose Gain1 over inter-trial interval plus delay before the small amount plus post feeding delay over the second alternative which is post feeding delay over inter-trial interval plus delay before the large amount as long as the former is greater than the later with consideration to temporal rates such as delay to food, post feeding delay and inter-trial delay. However these temporal rates are not treated equally by animals according to experiments. Evolutionary models can accommodate small discounting outcomes but they challenge the predictions of self control experiments. The latter show that short term hindrances have large effects. Scholars interpret such disagreements by disregarding the model and accepting the data. The blue jays were given a binary choice in the self control situation while the same subjects were given a choice to continue or leave where they follow a future patch alternative in the patch-use exploitation. The latter shows the effects of travel time on rate maximizing patch residence time. In the patch-use situation, the jays’ choice has comparable consequences but the subjects choose whether to wait in the patch and gather (G2 – G1) extra units of food or to leave at once after attaining a small amount (G1). In order to determine the different patterns of choices in the self control and patch-use contexts, the authors considered such in the context of 50 and 5 discount rate levels of delay to small. Results of the experiment concluded that when the delay to small was of ample amount (50) preferences of the blue jays were not affected by the ITI thus large outcome in the patch-use context was more favourable but when the delay to small was few (5), outcome was more complex. In the control situation, the jays’ favour for large decreased together with the ITI while in the patch-use situation the subjects’ favour increased for the large together with the ITI. The jays preferred large when the ITI was small in the self control situation while in the patch-use situation, t he foraging animals preferred large when the ITI was large.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Natural Selection Among the Foraging Blue Jays specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As predicted in the long term theory, the patch-use situation showed that the jays favoured large delayed outcomes as ITI increased but in the self control situation the outcomes are not the same. The authors presented situations that prove how results from both experiments (patch-use and self control) lead to long term rate maximizing. In the long term model situation results show that the patch-use context is in line with the long term rate model while the self control situation contradicts. According to the short term rate model, results of the self control treatment of binary choice conform to short term rate models while the outcomes of patch-use exploitation conforms to the long term rate currency. Both the self control and patch use situat ions were compared in the same rule different outcome analysis. This analysis resulted in the conclusion that in the patch-use experiment, short term rates were obtained with long term rate maximization but in the self control situation the conclusion differs. The authors concluded that short term rule always agrees with the difference in long term rates according to the patch-use exploitation situation though such rule produces outcomes in relation to short sighted behaviour in the self control situation thus the subjects use the same short term rule in deciding for both cases but producing different outcomes. For the adaptive short term rules scenario, it has been found out that the natural process of selection among foraging animals has favoured short term rate comparisons for they measure long term rate maximization in natural decision contexts. The hypothesis deals with the usage of the same rule in patch-use and self control contexts and the representation of patch condition a s natural foraging problems. The long term rate currency of foraging theory has been contradicted by self control studies and risk sensitive preferences. According to the risk sensitivity studies of Kacelnik and Bateson (1996), foraging animals favour changeable postponements even though unlimited time horizon rate models forecast indifference to unpredictability. The authors of the article argue that the evidence of self control of short term rules is not evidence of short term currency because in natural decision context, short term rules can have long term consequences.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally the authors theorized that pragmatic patterns of favour can be accounted by long term rate currency which includes reasonable levels of discounting. Foraging species favour attaining short term rewards with a minimal advantage over long term ones in abundance. The usual technique of elicitation of the inter-temporal discount rate has been critically challenged by scholars over the years when empirical studies discovered systematic violations of assumptions such as time consistency of preferences, stationary, constant discounting and utility maximization (Kalenscher and Pennartz, 2007). The discounted utility theory has limited descriptive validity because it fails to effectively depict the authenticity of inter-temporal choice behaviour. â€Å"Common difference and immediacy effects and the fact that preference reversals occur after deferring all choice alternatives into the future by the same interval, violate assumptions of consistent choice: (Kalenscher and Pennartz, 200 7). Foraging animals’ preferences do not depend on the proportion of gains and time in between such achievements but rather on the waiting time prior to the rewards. The technique becomes incoherent with the original and most favourable foraging formulation where animals are seen to sacrifice rather than maximize. The inter-temporal choice notion that it can be compressed into a single discount function is challenged by other variances such as the sign, magnitude and framing effects. When making inter-temporal decisions, foraging animals break vital assumptions in discount rates. Other limitations of such technique include the inability of long term theory to predict consistently the increase of favour for large together with ITI because choice in proportion cannot exceed 100% thus broad conditions exist where ITI has no effect. In the patch-use situation, ITI is hard to detect when favour for large is high, another drawback is with regards to the linear relationship in focus ing on temporal elements, where in reality the relationship between the amount and value can never be linear and lastly the authors’ assumption of animals’ preferences of short term rules over long term rules are not mutually exclusive. Critics of the usual technique of elicitation of the inter-temporal discount rate methods can be traced to their inability to provide consistent outcomes over time. Systematic violations also occur with regards to assumptions such as time consistency of preferences, stationary, constant discounting and utility maximization. These factors gravely affect results thus the method is questionable in providing valid outcomes in experiments. Hyperbolic discounting is inconsistent because it only measures the discounted outcomes of the near future and rather than the far future. The pattern of discounting is also inconsistent because how one subject’s decisions may be based on different aspects one considers than the other. In human beha viour discounting is influenced by the person’s expectations, moods, sign, glucose levels and the like which may differ from one person to another. Experimental ecology has provided a method in testing the inter-temporal choice behaviours of human beings though discounting can only provide outcomes of the near future and is limited to predict results in the far future, experimental ecology enables scholars to study patterns of choice. Patterns can be explained through discounting methods offered by the experiment in distinguishing the delay and interval of discounting. The experiment can help scholars analyse human behaviours in terms of people’s decisions and the future consequences they regard in making such choices by considering the variability of discount rates the experiment may provide. Experimental ecology provides scholars close to accurate approximations of outcomes through a series of controlled examinations of hypothesis and theories. It enables scholars to manipulate evidences and test models where distractions in their natural habitats may disrupt findings. If a model disagrees with data, the former will be rejected and the latter will be followed accordingly. In determining the feeding decisions of foraging animals such as blue jays, Stephen and Anderson compared the self control and patch-use experiments where in the former the jays were given a binary choice, obtain gains in a short period of time even if it is a few in quantity or wait for a period of time and obtain more gains while the in the latter case jays are given a choice to attain a gain and leave or continue and receive more gains. In both experiments the approach is similar but outcomes vary. In the self control approach the authors found out that it tends to lean on the short term model and that the patch-use situation is associated with the long term model. Techniques in the elicitation of inter-temporal discount rates help predict outcomes in behaviours of foraging animals in their decisions towards feeding but it presents limitations such as the violations of the theory’s assumptions and the consistency of predictions which may present as a problem in synthesizing conclusions for experiments. Furthermore, the assumption of linear relationships in the experiment deemed itself inconsistent because in reality relationships can never be linear. Though experimental ecology has its critics, contributions of such in the field can be attributed to its ability to control external factors that may disrupt results of the study and through experimentations theories and hypothesis can be proven through actual examinations. Reference List Bateson, M and Kacclnik, A 1996. â€Å"Rate currencies and the foraging starling: the fallacy of the averages revisited†, Behavioural Ecology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp.341-352. Baum, W and Rachlin, H 1969. â€Å"Choice as time allocation†, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, vol.12, no. 6, pp .861-874. Kacclnik, A and Bateson, M 1996, â€Å"Risky theories – the effects of variance on foraging decisions†, American Zoology, vol. 36, pp.402-434. Kalenscher, T and Pennartz, C 2007, â€Å"Is a bird in the hand worth two in the future? The neuroeconomics of inter-temporal decision making†, Progressive in Neurobiology, pp.1-32. Available from:  https://www.journals.elsevier.com/progress-in-neurobiology [26 December 2011]. Stephen, D and Krebs, J 1986, Foraging theory: Monographs in behaviour and ecology, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Maritime transportation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Maritime transportation - Essay Example It was forecasted to rise between 6.5-7% per annum over the next ten years (MPA, 2012). The reason behind Singapore’s maritime industry’s vibrant success is its strategic location and constant competition evolved into a strategic center for maritime business. Situated in the center of a complex global web of trade routes and connected to over 600 ports in over 120 countries, Singapore is nothing less than a global hub. A ‘hub’ can be defined as a well-connected node in a network, and throughout history, successful hubs have been the ones that offer focal points of opportunities, growth and innovation. Singapore has been identified as not only one of the 40 mega regions, which signify large markets with significant economic potential, but it is also one of the world’s most important maritime countries as per the UN Conference on Trade and Development. Singapore, apart from being a premier global hub port, is also the busiest port in the world considering shipping tonnage alone, which amounts to more than 120,000 vessel calls annually. In 2004, only the total vessel arrivals at the port exceeded one billion gross tons for the first time in Singapore’s maritime history. Moreover Singapore offers around 20 million tons of bunkers supplied each year to ships globally. Additionally, Singapore offers reliable and efficient cargo handling, the Global Competitiveness Report 2006-7 ranks Singapore as having the best Quality for Port Infrastructure. Singapore holds 70% of the global jack-up rig-building market and more than 65% of the world’s floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) conversion market. Its technological adeptness is observable through the wide range of maritime services available, including pilot age, towage, fresh water supply, crew changes, ship supply and repair as well as expert building facilitie s (Tan, 2005). Singapore is also a fast developing Petrochemical